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181 entries « 3 of 4 »

2009

Herrero Antonia M, Toma Francesca M, Al-Jamal Khuloud T, Kostarelos Kostas, Bianco Alberto, Ros Tatiana Da, Bano Fouzia, Casalis Loredana, Scoles Giacinto, Prato Maurizio

Synthesis and characterization of a carbon nanotube-dendron series for efficient siRNA delivery Journal Article

In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 131, no. 28, pp. 9843–9848, 2009, ISSN: 1520-5126.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Acrylates, Animals, Azo Compounds, Biological Transport, carbon, Cytoplasm, Dendrimers, Drug Carriers, Ethylenediamines, Gene Silencing, HeLa Cells, Humans, I2CT, Nanotubes, Polyamines, RNA, Small Interfering, Solubility, Team-Bianco, Thiosemicarbazones, Transfection, water

Marega Riccardo, Aroulmoji Vincent, Dinon Francesca, Vaccari Lisa, Giordani Silvia, Bianco Alberto, Murano Erminio, Prato Maurizio

Diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy in the structural characterization of functionalized carbon nanotubes Journal Article

In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 131, no. 25, pp. 9086–9093, 2009, ISSN: 1520-5126.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: carbon, Diffusion, I2CT, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Nanotubes, Oxidation-Reduction, Surface Properties, Team-Bianco

Podesta Jennifer E, Al-Jamal Khuloud T, Herrero Antonia M, Tian Bowen, Ali-Boucetta Hanene, Hegde Vikas, Bianco Alberto, Prato Maurizio, Kostarelos Kostas

Antitumor activity and prolonged survival by carbon-nanotube-mediated therapeutic siRNA silencing in a human lung xenograft model Journal Article

In: Small (Weinheim an Der Bergstrasse, Germany), vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 1176–1185, 2009, ISSN: 1613-6829.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Animals, Antineoplastic Agents, Apoptosis, carbon, Cell Line, Cell Proliferation, Electrophoresis, Gene Silencing, Humans, I2CT, Liposomes, Lung Neoplasms, Mice, Nanomedicine, Nanotubes, RNA, Small Interfering, Survival Analysis, Team-Bianco, tumor, Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

Bianco Alberto

Potential usefulness of carbon nanotubes for cancer therapy Journal Article

In: Medecine Sciences: M/S, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 125–127, 2009, ISSN: 0767-0974.

Links | BibTeX | Tags: carbon, Graphite, Humans, I2CT, Nanotubes, Neoplasms, Team-Bianco

Gaillard Claire, Cellot Giada, Li Shouping, Toma Francesca Maria, Dumortier Hélène, Spalluto Giampiero, Cacciari Barbara, Prato Maurizio, Ballerini Laura, Bianco Alberto

Carbon Nanotubes Carrying Cell-Adhesion Peptides do not Interfere with Neuronal Functionality Journal Article

In: Advanced Materials, vol. 21, no. 28, pp. 2903–2908, 2009, ISSN: 1521-4095.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Carbon nanotubes, Cytotoxicity, I2CT, mammalian cells, Neurons, Peptides, Team-Bianco

Bianco Alberto

Les nanotubes de carbone : un nouvel outil contre le cancer Journal Article

In: M/S. Médecine sciences [ISSN papier : 0767-0974 ; ISSN numérique : 1958-5381], 2009, Vol. 25, N° 2; p. 125-127, 2009, ISSN: 1958-5381.

Links | BibTeX | Tags: I2CT, Team-Bianco

Guichard Gilles, Trouche Nathalie, Wieckowski Sébastien, Sun Weimin, Chaloin Olivier, Bianco Alberto, Hoebeke Johan, Schneider Pascal, Fournel Sylvie

Rationally-designed multivalent architectures for mimicking homotrimers of CD40L, a member of the TNF superfamily Journal Article

In: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 611, pp. 355–357, 2009, ISSN: 0065-2598.

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Biopolymers, CD40 Ligand, I2CT, Models, Molecular, Molecular Mimicry, Team-Bianco, X-Ray Diffraction

Geotti-Bianchini Piero, Crisma Marco, Peggion Cristina, Bianco Alberto, Formaggio Fernando

Conformationally controlled, thymine-based alpha-nucleopeptides Journal Article

In: Chemical Communications (Cambridge, England), no. 22, pp. 3178–3180, 2009, ISSN: 1359-7345.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: I2CT, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Oligopeptides, Protein Conformation, Team-Bianco, thymine, X-Ray Diffraction

Geotti-Bianchini Piero, Crisma Marco, Peggion Cristina, Bianco Alberto, Formaggio Fernando

Synthesis and 3D-structure of conformationally controlled nucleo-peptides Journal Article

In: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 611, pp. 37–38, 2009, ISSN: 0065-2598.

Links | BibTeX | Tags: I2CT, Models, Molecular, Nucleoproteins, Peptides, Protein Conformation, Team-Bianco

2008

Yandar Nubia, Pastorin Giorgia, Prato Maurizio, Bianco Alberto, Patarroyo Manuel Elkin, Lozano José Manuel

Immunological profile of a Plasmodium vivax AMA-1 N-terminus peptide-carbon nanotube conjugate in an infected Plasmodium berghei mouse model Journal Article

In: Vaccine, vol. 26, no. 46, pp. 5864–5873, 2008, ISSN: 0264-410X.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1), Functionalized carbon nanotubes (-CNT), I2CT, Synthetic vaccine delivery system, Team-Bianco

Geotti-Bianchini Piero, Beyrath Julien, Chaloin Olivier, Formaggio Fernando, Bianco Alberto

Design and synthesis of intrinsically cell-penetrating nucleopeptides Journal Article

In: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, vol. 6, no. 20, pp. 3661–3663, 2008, ISSN: 1477-0539.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Amino Acid Sequence, Cell Line, Cells, Drug Design, Humans, I2CT, Molecular Sequence Data, Peptides, Purines, Pyrimidines, Team-Bianco

Lacerda Lara, Herrero Maria A, Venner Kerrie, Bianco Alberto, Prato Maurizio, Kostarelos Kostas

Carbon-nanotube shape and individualization critical for renal excretion Journal Article

In: Small (Weinheim an Der Bergstrasse, Germany), vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 1130–1132, 2008, ISSN: 1613-6829.

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Animals, Biological Transport, carbon, Electron, Female, Glomerular Filtration Rate, I2CT, Inbred BALB C, Kidney Glomerulus, Mice, Microscopy, Nanoparticles, nanotechnology, Nanotubes, Team-Bianco, Transmission

Fabre Bruno, Hauquier Fanny, Herrier Cyril, Pastorin Giorgia, Wu Wei, Bianco Alberto, Prato Maurizio, Hapiot Philippe, Zigah Dodzi, Prasciolu Mauro, Vaccari Lisa

Covalent assembly and micropatterning of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes to monolayer-modified Si(111) surfaces Journal Article

In: Langmuir: the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids, vol. 24, no. 13, pp. 6595–6602, 2008, ISSN: 0743-7463.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Atomic Force, carbon, Electrochemistry, Electron, I2CT, Microscopy, Nanotubes, scanning, Silicon, Surface Properties, Team-Bianco

Li Shouping, Wu Wei, Campidelli Stéphane, Sarnatskaïa Veronika, Prato Maurizio, Tridon Arlette, Nikolaev Andrey, Nikolaev Vladimir, Bianco Alberto, Snezhkova Elisaveta

Adsorption of carbon nanotubes on active carbon microparticles Journal Article

In: Carbon, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 1091–1095, 2008, ISSN: 0008-6223.

Links | BibTeX | Tags: I2CT, Team-Bianco

Kostarelos Kostas, Bianco Alberto, Prato Maurizio

Hype around nanotubes creates unrealistic hopes Journal Article

In: Nature, vol. 453, no. 7193, pp. 280, 2008, ISSN: 1476-4687.

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Adult Stem Cells, carbon, Humans, I2CT, Nanomedicine, Nanotubes, Reproducibility of Results, Team-Bianco

Lacerda Lara, Ali-Boucetta Hanene, Herrero Maria A, Pastorin Giorgia, Bianco Alberto, Prato Maurizio, Kostarelos Kostas

Tissue histology and physiology following intravenous administration of different types of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes Journal Article

In: Nanomedicine (London, England), vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 149–161, 2008, ISSN: 1748-6963.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Animals, carbon, Female, I2CT, Inbred BALB C, Injections, Intravenous, Mice, Nanotubes, Organ Specificity, Team-Bianco, Tissue Distribution

Ali-Boucetta Hanene, Al-Jamal Khuloud T, McCarthy David, Prato Maurizio, Bianco Alberto, Kostarelos Kostas

Multiwalled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin supramolecular complexes for cancer therapeutics Journal Article

In: Chemical Communications (Cambridge, England), no. 4, pp. 459–461, 2008, ISSN: 1359-7345.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Antineoplastic Agents, Breast Neoplasms, carbon, Cultured, Doxorubicin, Electron, Humans, I2CT, Microscopy, Nanotubes, Team-Bianco, Transmission, Tumor Cells

Prato Maurizio, Kostarelos Kostas, Bianco Alberto

Functionalized carbon nanotubes in drug design and discovery Journal Article

In: Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 60–68, 2008, ISSN: 1520-4898.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Animals, carbon, Communicable Diseases, Drug Carriers, Drug Design, Genetic Therapy, Humans, I2CT, Immunization, Nanotubes, Neoplasms, Team-Bianco

Lacerda L, Soundararajan A, Singh R, Pastorin G, Al‐Jamal K T, Turton J, Frederik P, Herrero M A, Li S, Bao A, Emfietzoglou D, Mather S, Phillips W T, Prato M, Bianco A, Goins B, Kostarelos K

Dynamic Imaging of Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Systemic Circulation and Urinary Excretion Journal Article

In: Advanced Materials, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 225–230, 2008, ISSN: 1521-4095.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Biomedical applications, Carbon nanotubes, I2CT, multiwalled, Nanomaterials, Team-Bianco

Lacotte Stéphanie, García Ainara, Décossas Marion, Al‐Jamal Wafa' T, Li Shouping, Kostarelos Kostas, Muller Sylviane, Prato Maurizio, Dumortier Hélène, Bianco Alberto

Interfacing Functionalized Carbon Nanohorns with Primary Phagocytic Cells Journal Article

In: Advanced Materials, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 2421–2426, 2008, ISSN: 1521-4095.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: carbon nanostructures, Cells, Cytotoxicity, Drug delivery, I2CT, Team-Bianco

Violette Aude, Lancelot Nathalie, Poschalko Alexander, Piotto Martial, Briand Jean-Paul, Raya Jesus, Elbayed Karim, Bianco Alberto, Guichard Gilles

Exploring helical folding of oligoureas during chain elongation by high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HRMAS) NMR spectroscopy Journal Article

In: Chemistry (Weinheim an Der Bergstrasse, Germany), vol. 14, no. 13, pp. 3874–3882, 2008, ISSN: 0947-6539.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: I2CT, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Molecular Structure, Solvents, Team-Bianco, Urea

Bianco Alberto, Kostarelos Kostas, Prato Maurizio

Opportunities and challenges of carbon-based nanomaterials for cancer therapy Journal Article

In: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 331–342, 2008, ISSN: 1742-5247.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Animals, carbon, Electron, Humans, I2CT, Microscopy, Nanomedicine, Nanostructures, Nanotubes, Neoplasms, Pharmaceutical, Team-Bianco, Technology, Transmission

2007

Lacerda Lara, Bianco Alberto, Prato Maurizio, Kostarelos Kostas

Carbon nanotube cell translocation and delivery of nucleic acidsin vitro and in vivo Journal Article

In: Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 17–22, 2007, ISSN: 1364-5501.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: I2CT, Team-Bianco

Lacerda Lara, Raffa Simona, Prato Maurizio, Bianco Alberto, Kostarelos Kostas

Cell-penetrating CNTs for delivery of therapeutics Journal Article

In: Nano Today, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 38–43, 2007, ISSN: 1748-0132.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: I2CT, Team-Bianco

Habib Mohammed, Rivas Magali Noval, Chamekh Mustapha, Wieckowski Sébastien, Sun Weimin, Bianco Alberto, Trouche Nathalie, Chaloin Olivier, Dumortier Hélène, Goldman Michel, Guichard Gilles, Fournel Sylvie, Vray Bernard

Cutting Edge: Small Molecule CD40 Ligand Mimetics Promote Control of Parasitemia and Enhance Ŧ Cells Producing IFN-γ during Experimental Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Journal Article

In: The Journal of Immunology, vol. 178, no. 11, pp. 6700–6704, 2007, ISSN: 0022-1767, 1550-6606.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: I2CT, Team-Bianco

Habib Mohammed, Rivas Magali Noval, Chamekh Mustapha, Wieckowski Sébastien, Sun Weimin, Bianco Alberto, Trouche Nathalie, Chaloin Olivier, Dumortier Hélène, Goldman Michel, Guichard Gilles, Fournel Sylvie, Vray Bernard

Cutting edge: small molecule CD40 ligand mimetics promote control of parasitemia and enhance Ŧ cells producing IFN-gamma during experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection Journal Article

In: Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950), vol. 178, no. 11, pp. 6700–6704, 2007, ISSN: 0022-1767.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Animals, CD40 Antigens, CD40 Ligand, Cell Line, Cells, Chagas Disease, Cultured, Dumortier, I2CT, Inbred BALB C, Inbred C57BL, Interferon-gamma, Knockout, Mice, Molecular Mimicry, Parasitemia, T-Lymphocyte Subsets, Team-Bianco, Team-Dumortier, Trypanosoma cruzi

Kostarelos Kostas, Lacerda Lara, Pastorin Giorgia, Wu Wei, Wieckowski Sébastien, Luangsivilay Jacqueline, Godefroy Sylvie, Pantarotto Davide, Briand Jean-Paul, Muller Sylviane, Prato Maurizio, Bianco Alberto

Cellular uptake of functionalized carbon nanotubes is independent of functional group and cell type Journal Article

In: Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 108–113, 2007, ISSN: 1748-3395.

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Animals, carbon, Cell Membrane, Cells, Cultured, Diffusion, Humans, I2CT, Nanotubes, Team-Bianco

Lacerda L, Pastorin G, Gathercole D, Buddle J, Prato M, Bianco A, Kostarelos K

Intracellular Trafficking of Carbon Nanotubes by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy Journal Article

In: Advanced Materials, vol. 19, no. 14, pp. 1789–1789, 2007, ISSN: 1521-4095.

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Biomedical materials, Cells, Drug delivery, fluorescence, I2CT, Nanotubes, single-walled, Team-Bianco

Klumpp Cédric, Lacerda Lara, Chaloin Olivier, Ros Tatiana Da, Kostarelos Kostas, Prato Maurizio, Bianco Alberto

Multifunctionalised cationic fullerene adducts for gene transfer: design, synthesis and DNA complexation Journal Article

In: Chemical Communications (Cambridge, England), no. 36, pp. 3762–3764, 2007, ISSN: 1359-7345.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: DNA, Electrophoresis, Fullerenes, Gene Transfer Techniques, I2CT, Molecular Structure, Plasmids, Team-Bianco

2006

Lacerda Lara, Bianco Alberto, Prato Maurizio, Kostarelos Kostas

Carbon nanotubes as nanomedicines: from toxicology to pharmacology Journal Article

In: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 58, no. 14, pp. 1460–1470, 2006, ISSN: 0169-409X.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Animals, carbon, Humans, I2CT, Nanomedicine, Nanotubes, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacology, Team-Bianco

Hauquier Fanny, Pastorin Giorgia, Hapiot Philippe, Prato Maurizio, Bianco Alberto, Fabre Bruno

Carbon nanotube-functionalized silicon surfaces with efficient redox communication Journal Article

In: Chemical Communications (Cambridge, England), no. 43, pp. 4536–4538, 2006, ISSN: 1359-7345.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: carbon, I2CT, Nanotubes, Oxidation-Reduction, Silicon, Surface Properties, Team-Bianco

Dumortier Hélène, Lacotte Stéphanie, Pastorin Giorgia, Marega Riccardo, Wu Wei, Bonifazi Davide, Briand Jean-Paul, Prato Maurizio, Muller Sylviane, Bianco Alberto

Functionalized carbon nanotubes are non-cytotoxic and preserve the functionality of primary immune cells Journal Article

In: Nano Letters, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 1522–1528, 2006, ISSN: 1530-6984.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Amides, B-Lymphocytes, Biotechnology, carbon, Cell Survival, Cytokines, I2CT, Macrophages, Molecular Structure, Nanotubes, Oxidation-Reduction, T-Lymphocytes, Team-Bianco

Pastorin Giorgia, Marchesan Silvia, Hoebeke Johan, Ros Tatiana Da, Ehret-Sabatier Laurence, Briand Jean-Paul, Prato Maurizio, Bianco Alberto

Design and activity of cationic fullerene derivatives as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase Journal Article

In: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, vol. 4, no. 13, pp. 2556–2562, 2006, ISSN: 1477-0520.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Acetylcholinesterase, Binding Sites, Cations, Cholinesterase Inhibitors, Drug Design, Fullerenes, I2CT, Models, Molecular, Team-Bianco

Bianco Alberto, Maggini Michele, Nogarole Marco, Scorrano Gianfranco

Hydrolysis Rate of Functionalized Fullerenes Bearing Alkoxysilanes: A Comparative Study Journal Article

In: European Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 2006, no. 13, pp. 2934–2941, 2006, ISSN: 1434-193X.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Alkoxysilanes, Fullerenes, Fulleropyrrolidines, I2CT, Sol–gel, Team-Bianco

Dumortier Hélène, Lacotte Stéphanie, Pastorin Giorgia, Marega Riccardo, Wu Wei, Bonifazi Davide, Briand Jean-Paul, Prato Maurizio, Muller Sylviane, Bianco Alberto

Functionalized carbon nanotubes are non-cytotoxic and preserve the functionality of primary immune cells Journal Article

In: Nano Letters, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 1522–1528, 2006, ISSN: 1530-6984.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Amides, B-Lymphocytes, Biotechnology, carbon, Cell Survival, Cytokines, Dumortier, I2CT, Macrophages, Molecular Structure, Nanotubes, Oxidation-Reduction, T-Lymphocytes, Team-Bianco, Team-Dumortier

Bianco Alberto, Fournel Sylvie, Wieckowski Sébastien, Hoebeke Johan, Guichard Gilles

Solid-phase synthesis of CD40L mimetics Journal Article

In: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 1461–1463, 2006, ISSN: 1477-0520.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Apoptosis, CD40 Ligand, Cell Line, Chromatography, Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques, High Pressure Liquid, Humans, I2CT, Molecular Mimicry, Molecular Structure, Protein Binding, Team-Bianco, tumor

Tasis Dimitrios, Tagmatarchis Nikos, Bianco Alberto, Prato Maurizio

Chemistry of carbon nanotubes Journal Article

In: Chemical Reviews, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 1105–1136, 2006, ISSN: 0009-2665.

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Animals, Biopolymers, carbon, Chemical Phenomena, Chemistry, I2CT, Molecular Structure, Nanotubes, Solubility, Surface Properties, Team-Bianco

Pastorin Giorgia, Wu Wei, Wieckowski Sébastien, Briand Jean-Paul, Kostarelos Kostas, Prato Maurizio, Bianco Alberto

Double functionalization of carbon nanotubes for multimodal drug delivery Journal Article

In: Chemical Communications (Cambridge, England), no. 11, pp. 1182–1184, 2006, ISSN: 1359-7345.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Azo Compounds, carbon, Cyclization, Drug Carriers, I2CT, Microscopy, Nanotubes, Pharmaceutical Preparations, Scanning Tunneling, Solubility, Team-Bianco

Brough Peter, Klumpp Cedric, Bianco Alberto, Campidelli Stephane, Prato Maurizio

[60]fullerene-pyrrolidine-N-oxides Journal Article

In: The Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 2014–2020, 2006, ISSN: 0022-3263.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Chromatography, Fullerenes, High Pressure Liquid, I2CT, Nitrogen, Oxidation-Reduction, Oxides, Pyrrolidines, Spectrum Analysis, Team-Bianco

Klumpp Cédric, Kostarelos Kostas, Prato Maurizio, Bianco Alberto

Functionalized carbon nanotubes as emerging nanovectors for the delivery of therapeutics Journal Article

In: Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1758, no. 3, pp. 404–412, 2006, ISSN: 0006-3002.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: carbon, DNA, Drug Carriers, Drug Delivery Systems, Humans, I2CT, Nanotubes, RNA, Team-Bianco

Singh Ravi, Pantarotto Davide, Lacerda Lara, Pastorin Giorgia, Klumpp Cédric, Prato Maurizio, Bianco Alberto, Kostarelos Kostas

Tissue biodistribution and blood clearance rates of intravenously administered carbon nanotube radiotracers Journal Article

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 103, no. 9, pp. 3357–3362, 2006, ISSN: 0027-8424.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Animals, carbon, Electron, Female, Half-Life, I2CT, Inbred BALB C, Indium Radioisotopes, Injections, Intravenous, Mice, Microscopy, Molecular Structure, Nanotubes, Pentetic Acid, Team-Bianco, Tissue Distribution, Transmission

Campidelli Stéphane, Klumpp Cédric, Bianco Alberto, Guldi Dirk M, Prato Maurizio

Functionalization of CNT: synthesis and applications in photovoltaics and biology Journal Article

In: Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry, vol. 19, no. 8-9, pp. 531–539, 2006, ISSN: 1099-1395.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Carbon nanotubes, Cells, Drug delivery, electron transfer, Functionalization, I2CT,